The RAMA Group participates in the CIHEAM Zaragoza course on “Integrating the Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem (WEFE) nexus approach in Mediterranean irrigated agriculture”

Researchers from the RAMA group have participated as lecturers in this course taught at CIHEAM-Zaragoza, which was also organized by the PRIMA Foundation and ICARDA. The course took place from November 6 to 19, with the participation of 17 students in person and 26 in remote mode. The in-person students have come from a dozen countries bordering the Mediterranean.

More details on the course can be obtained at:

The course has covered the following aspects:

  • The relationship between the Nexus and the Sustainable Development Goals.
  • The implementation of the Nexus in the context of climate change.
  • Irrigated agriculture facing severe water stress.
  • Reducing the dependence of Mediterranean agriculture on water and energy.
  • The Nexus at the interface between irrigated agriculture and wetlands.
  • Nitrate pollution in irrigated agriculture.
  • The interaction between the Nexus, stakeholders and policy development.
  • Innovative Nexus governance approaches.
  • Software tools for irrigation systems in the context of the Nexus.
  • Use of renewable energies in irrigation .
  • Alternative water resources for irrigation.
  • The Nexus in irrigated agriculture at different scales.
  • River contracts: a tool for nitrate pollution control.
  • Accounting for ecosystem services.

The course lecturers from the RAMA Group where Carmen Castañeda, Daniel Isidoro, Enrique Playán and Nery Zapata.